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What is Footing? | Best 8 kinds of Footing

Footing

FOOTING

The Footing is a component of the foundation made of concrete or brickwork masonry and serves as a basis for the floor columns and walls. The primary purpose of this method is to distribute vertical loads to the earth immediately.

 The following considerations influence the selection of appropriate forms of Footing:

  1. the depth to which safe-bearing strata exit the earth; 
  2. b) the type and condition of the soil; 
  3. c) the type of superstructure

Every home has a foundation, and most foundations have footings beneath them. We take them for granted most of the time. A standard 16- or 20-inch-wide can easily support the comparatively small weight of a typical house in most soils. 

 

In weak bearing circumstances,  that performs well in good soil may not function as well. Excessive settlement is regular when soil bearing capacity is limited, although we often don’t see outright failure.

TYPES

They are classified into different types based on their purpose, quality, and weight-bearing capacity. Various types are available for use in construction.

1. Continuous

Continuous Footing is used to supports a lengthy masonry or RCC wall. It might be basic or stepped. In general, the breadth should be at least twice the width of the wall it supports. This form of foundation is not cost-effective. Continuous wall footings are utilized to help foundation walls as well as load-bearing walls.

2. Isolated

An isolated footing is a foundation that supports a single column. Pad, stepped, sloped, or isolated beam and slab are all options. These are cost-effective when good soil is available.

3. Combined

The term “combined footing” refers to a base that supports two or more columns. When two or more columns are close together, or when two or more individual of a column overlap, it is employed. The plan of a combined be trapezoidal or rectangular. When one column’s weight is larger than the other, a trapezoidal form is used.

4. Strap

The cost quickly rises when the distance between the two columns supported on a combined footing becomes wide. In such instances, the strap is a cost-effective solution.

5. Raft

Footing requires a more extensive area if the loads transmitted by the columns in a structure are heavy and the permitted soil pressure is low. It may be preferable in this instance to have continuous help beneath all columns and walls. 

6. Pile

A pile is a vertical load-transfer element constructed of wood, steel, or concrete that extends for a long distance. The number of piles is driven into the structure’s base in pile foundations. They are built-in situations where excessive settlement must be avoided, and loads must be carried through a soft soil layer with sufficient bearing capacity. Several footings are used when the soil bearing capacity is low, and the groundwater table (level) is high. These are commonly used to construct pillars on seashore locations, bridges, and other structures.

7. Sloped

Sloped or trapezoidal , is a form of footing with a sloping top or side faces. They are built and designed with great care to ensure that the 45-degree top slope is maintained on all sides. When comparing the trapezoidal and flat footings, the trapezoidal uses less concrete. As a result, the cost of concrete and reinforcing is reduced.

8. Stepped

The real benefit of adopting this method is that it keeps metal columns out of direct contact with the earth, preventing corrosive effects. This type  is utilized to carry the weight of metal columns and transfer it to the ground below.

Thus, these are the major types of footing used for constructions.

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